Villa Farnesina: The myth of Amor and Psyche

To which problem is the fresco a solution?


The story of Amor and Psyche on the walls of the Villa Farnesina in Rome is a Greek myth, a love story and was painted there by Raphael and his school in the 16th century. Owner of the Villa Farnesina at that time was Agostino Chigi. In this Wiki page we try to find to which problem the fresco of Amor and Psyche is a solution.


Contents
1. Raphael
1.1 Raphael's life
1.2 Renaissance in Raphael's work of Amor and Psyche
2. Chigi
3. The Villa Farnesina
4. The fable of Amor and Psyche
4.1 What did he paint, and what not
5. Why the Greek myth Amor & Psyche
6. Pagan gods
7. Which symbols - which people recognized that time - are used?
8. Problems and solutions
9. Bibliography
10. References

Raphael


Raphael's life

Raphael or Raffaello Santi is born on March 28, 1483 in Urbino, a city in the north of Italy. His father, Giovanni Santi, was both a poet and a painter, who served the Duke of Urbino, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro. Giovanni taught his son his first artistic skills and was definitely important for the young painter's formation. However little of that is actually visible in the paintings Raphael made when he started painting independently.[1] Giovanni Santi died on the first of August, 1494, when his son was just eleven years old. Raphael's mother, Magia Ciarla, had passed away a couple of years before, in 1491. Giovanni had remarried a year after his first wife's dead, but that gave some trouble in the family. Although little is known about Raphael in the years before 1500, it is said that the fact that he was an orphan at such an early age gave him strength. He became a master early and received his first commission when he had not yet turned eighteen.[2]

Around this time Raphael went to Perugia, where he started working as an assistant in the workshop of Pietro Perugino, an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbria school. The precise year of his arrival is a heavily debated issue, but there are indications that suggest that Raphael already started working for Perugino in 1494 or 1495.[3] Raphael not only learned from Perugino, but also from other artists like Pinturicchio, who was a former pupil and assistant of Perugino.[4] In 1504 Raphael was ready to move on and went to Florence, where he emerged himself in Florentine art. The exact date is again difficult to establish because Raphael received several commissions from his Umbrian patrons in the following years.[5] In Florence Raphael is amongst others influenced by the great Renaissance painters Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.[6] A few years later, in 1508, Raphael went to Rome to work for Pope Julius II.

In 1509 he starts working on the Stanze della Segnatura, the study and private library of the pope. The frescoes like for example the School of Athens are amongst the most famous works that the painter has ever produced. Apart from this commission Raphael also produced other works for the pope and for his cardinals and friends. In 1514 he even was appointed as architect of the Saint Peter's Basilica. Occasionally Raphael was also employed by other people. Raphael now had a high reputation and was a most wanted artist. Patrons competed for portraits, altarpieces, and frescoes.[7] A very special one was the rich banker Agostino Chigi. As a private patron, he could have Raphael produce works of art with secular, mythological subjects. This is said to be important for the one of Raphael's essential sides, the revival of the antique gods in painting.[8] Later we will tell more about Chigi.

Chigi's first commission for Raphael was the decoration of his chapel in Santa Maria della Pace in the beginning of 1511, probably at a time when pope Julius was in Bologna. When Julius II returned in June 1511 the work on the chapel was postponed and Raphael started working again for the pope. In the same year Chigi employed Raphael to paint the fresco of the nymph Galatea in a loggia of his new villa.

Except for this fresco Raphael was busy working for the pope and other friends so further work for Chigi was not possible.[9] In 1517 Chigi is able to hire Raphael again and had him decorating the ceiling of the entrance loggia of his villa with scenes of the story of Amor and Psyche. Raphael died a couple of years later in 1520 on the age of thirty-three.

Renaissance in Raphael's work of Amor and Psyche

The fresco of Amor and Psyche from Raphael is a typically Renaissance work of art. The story told on the ceiling of the loggia is the myth of Amor and Psyche, which is a Greek myth from the Classical period. No Christian story is to be told, but a pagan fable. The figures on the ceiling look very similar to people in real life; the proportions of the bodies and the ratios between the figures are correct.

Raphael is the artist of the fresco of Amor and Psyche. Agostino Chigi, the owner of the Villa Farnesina, wanted Raphael to paint his ceiling and not some unknown artist. This differs from the Middle Age idea that is it is all about the fresco and not about the painter who made it.

Chigi


The Sienese banker Agostino Chigi was born in 1466 in family of merchants who became bankers. He learned the banking business in his father's bank and soon became familiar with the finances of the Papal States. When he was twenty years old Agostino started his first bank in Rome and a couple of years later, after the election of Pope Alexander VI Borgia in 1492, business flourished. Agostino became very rich and started to lend money to the high society members like Cesare Borgia, Piero de' Medici, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro and even to the French king Charles VIII.[10] Apart from these affairs Chigi made his fortune mainly by obtaining the lease for the alum mines in Tolfa. This valuable mineral salt was badly needed for the textile production and Chigi became in possession of the papal monopoly in Europe on this product. He exploited this business very well and the church as well as Chigi himself hugely benefited from this.[11] Because of his luxurious lifestyle Chigi was sometimes called 'il Magnifico'.[12]

After the pontificate of Alexander VI, Agostino maintained a close relationship with the popes. He lended sums of money to Pope Julius II della Rovere that were needed for the papal elections.[13] In 1509 Julius accepted Chigi into the papal family and with his permission the Della Rovere oak became part of the Chigi arms (originally six hills crowned with a star).[14] Julius II en Chigi shared more than a business relationship. They were both lovers of art, literature, theatre and the ancient world.[15] Chigi had for example an excellent knowledge of Greek literature and even established his own printing office in order to publish texts of Greek writers.[16] Agostino also befriended the next pope Leo X Medici by lending him money and organizing feasts.[17]

Agostino Chigi was not only a man of intellectual but also of earthly pleasures. He was fond of banquets, parties and women. After his first wife Margherita Saracini died childless in 1508, he had many affairs and extramarital children. One of his mistresses was the beautiful courtesan Imperia with whom he also had a daughter. But even before Imperia died in 1512 Chigi had begun courting the daughter of the Marquis of Mantua, Margherita Gonzaga. His attempts to persuade her into marriage failed however and in 1511 Chigi met Francesca Ordeaschi when he was on a dept-collecting mission to Venice. Francesca was a girl a poor family and therefore not thought of as proper match for the rich aristocratic banker. However, that did not stop Chigi. The couple lived together until their marriage in 1519[18] and even had four extramarital children. This match was of course subject of gossip and laughter in the Roman high society and in 1519 Chigi decided to regularize his position with a proper wedding.[19] Pope Leo X had already urged him to do so.[20] A year after the marriage in 1520 Agostino Chigi died.

The Villa Farnesina


Before the building of the Villa Farnesina, Chigi and his first wife lived in a house in the Via dei Banchi. In 1505 Chigi purchased a site on the other site of the Tiber, near the Via della Lungara. The architect and painter Baldassarre Peruzzi was commissioned to design a magnificent villa. Peruzzi finished his plans in 1506 and the building began soon after this. The property was completed by stables, designed by Raphael, and beautiful gardens which gave the residence an astonishing appearance. In 1508 interior decoration began and Chigi entrusted this to famous artists like Peruzzi, Sebastiano del Piombo and Raphael. In 1511 the architecture was completed. Although some rooms had not yet been decorated the villa was ready for its inhabitants and Chigi moved in. In the years following the decoration was finished and the result was a residence worthy of its owner.[21]

The entrance to the villa was on the north side of the building. Guests arrived in the Loggia of Amor and Psyche, the room that had been decorated by Raphael and his pupils in 1517. The pergola's and pavilions in the garden gave the impression of extending the festive garlands of fruit that are part of the interior decoration.[22] The loggia became a continuation of the garden and a place of tranquility. The frescoes of the myth were arranged in a way that fitted the situation of the house. On the left was the festive side, showing the marriage of Amor and Psyche, nearby the loggia of Galatea where guests were invited for dinner. On the right side was the fresco Council of the Gods, showing the way to Chigi's office where he frequently dealt with contracts and business matters.[23]

In his villa Chigi received many members of the Roman high society including princes, cardinals and the pope himself.[24] The villa is notorious for its banquets, feasts and intimate diners. On 30 April 1518 Chigi organized for example a banquet in the honor of pope Leo X.[25] Also famous is the banquet for the Roman aristocracy in 1518 on the occasion of the christening of his son Lorenzo Leone. It is said that gold en silver vessels used for the banquet were thrown into the Tiber to show Chigi's wealth. The story goes that Chigi had ordered nets to be laid in the river so that the gold and silver could be retrieved the next day.[26] On the 28th of august 1519 Agostino Chigi married Francesca Ordeaschi and a memorable wedding banquet was held in the Villa.[27]

After the death of Chigi in 1520 his heirs wasted the family fortune and did not take proper care of the villa. During the Sacco di Roma in 1527 the house was invaded by soldiers who even left markings on some of the frescoes on the first floor. The villa was sold to the rich family Farnese in 1590, who already owned a palazzo in the city. This is the reason why the villa is called the 'Villa Farnese'. In the years following the villa was heavily neglected. The villa had several owners until it was acquired by the Italian state in 1927. It was used to house the Italian Academy from 1929 until 1994. Thereafter it has been the property of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei who is still the current owner of the Villa Farnesina.[28]

The fable of Amor and Psyche


Psyche was told to be the youngest of three daughters of a King.[29] She was widely renowned for her beauty and people honoured and praised her in a way as if she was the goddess of Love, Venus, herself.

In fact, Venus envies the beauty of the mortal girl and gives order to her son to let Psyche fall in love with a horrible and ugly creature. In one of the frescoes this scene is imaged as Venus points out Psyche to Amor.

At night, Amor makes himself invisible and enters Psyche's room. The moment he wants to touch her with his arrow, Amor awakes and looks him right in the eye. Astonished by her beauty, Amor scratches himself with the arrow and falls deeply in love with Psyche. As Amor reports to Venus, she is outraged and curses Psyche, such that no man would ever marry her.

It worries Psyche's parents that despite her beauty no man proposes to her, therefore they consult the oracle of Apollo. His advice is to abandon her on a mountaintop, as she is not destined for mortal men. Once on that mountaintop Zephyr the West wind lifted her up and brought her to a flowery dale. In this pleasant place she was visited each night by her destined husband. Amor visited her every night, but charged her not to look at him as she should not doubt his love.

However, in time Psyche starts to long for her family and asks if she can get a visit by her sisters. As her sisters are brought to the valley, they envy the splendor their sister is living in. The sisters deceive Psyche and tell her that rumors go that her husband is in fact a tremendous monster. They advice her to take an oil lamp and a knife that night to see whether this story is true. When she lightens her lamp that night, she sees that she is betrayed by her sisters. Her husband is in fact the most delightful of all gods and as she leans over to have a better look on his face a drop of oil falls on the shoulder of Amor, which awakens them. Amor is very disappointed and flies away immediately as 'Love cannot dwell with suspicion'.[30]

Psyche was convicted to go to her home city and told her sisters what happened. Both sisters thought that this could be the chance for them to marry Amor and went to the mountaintop. As they jumped from the mountaintop expecting Zephyr to pick them up, this of course did not happen and they both fell dead on the ground.

Psyche looks everywhere for Amor until she came along the temple of Ceres. Ceres advices Psyche to go directly to Venus and to ask her for forgiveness. Afterwards Juno gives her the same advice. This scene is given in this fresco in which Psyche is imaged together with Ceres and Juno.

So, Psyche enters the temple of Venus and appears before the outraged Venus. Venus orders Psyche to sort out an enormous pile of grain before that evening. Alone, Psyche would have never finished this on time, but Amor stirs up an ant and its companions to help Psyche, such that she completes this task.

Venus thinks of another task. This time Psyche is asked to retrieve some golden wool from a group of golden sheep, which are in fact vicious and will probably kill her. This time a river-god helps Psyche to complete the task. Venus is enraged when Psyche returns with the wool and thinks of another assignment for Psyche. She gives her a crystal vessel, which she has to fill with some water from the innermost source of a stream. Again, Psyche is saved by others and returns the filled vessel to Venus. In the fresco you can see Psyche with the vessel on her way back to Venus. Psyche is carried by Amorini.

The moment Psyche returns the filled vessel to Venus is also depicted.

It is clear that Venus dislikes the fact that Psyche succeeded another assignment and therefore she thinks of one last impossible task. Psyche has to go to the underworld to ask the queen of the underworld to put a bit of her beauty in a box she was given by Venus. Again, with help of others she manages to fill the box with some beauty. On her way back, Psyche again lets her curiosity rule, and wants to have a look in the box. She wanted to put a little of the beauty on her cheeks to be even more charming when she meets Amor again. However, the only thing the box is filled with is an infernal sleep.

Luckily, Amor has forgiven Psyche and longs so much for her that he saves her and wipes the sleep from her face. Afterwards Amor visits Jupiter and begs him for his help. Jupiter gives his approval to the love between Amor and Psyche, which is represented in the following fresco by a kiss.

Jupiter is able to convince Venus to give her approval for a marriage as well; their conversation is depicted in the following fresco.

Furthermore, Jupiter calls for a Council of the Gods, in which they discuss the marriage and Jupiter explains that it is his will that Amor and Psyche do marry. The Council of the Gods is depicted in one of the main inner frescoes.

After the Gods gave their approval, Jupiter calls for Mercury. Mercury is depicted in one of the frescoes.

Mercury has to bring Psyche to the heavenly assembly, where she will get a cup of ambrosia, which will make her immortal. In another fresco you can see Mercury offering Psyche the cup of immortality.

Finally, the marriage of Amor and Psyche can take place. This marriage has a prominent place, since it is depicted in one of the center frescoes. In this fresco we see among others the Three Graces again, who sprinkle perfume on Amor and Psyche. Besides that we see the Hours with butterfly wings, which represents immortality.

Not every fresco fits exactly the story as it was once written down in Lucius Apuleius' novel, 'The Golden Ass'. The next fresco was painted just to show Amor's love for the Three Graces. In this fresco Amor is said to point out Psyche to the Three Graces. If we would have followed the direction to which Amor points in Chigi's period, we would have seen a fresco of Psyche. At the moment this lower fresco is not observable anymore. Several smaller frescoes in between the images that tell the story, show Amorini with attributes of a god, such as Mars and Mercury.

What did he paint, and what not.

In this paper we wrote about Raphael's life and that he was the painter of the Amor and Psyche fable on the ceiling of the Villa Farnesina. That is correct, but we cannot and must not ascribe all the work of Amor and Psyche to Raphael. Actually, just a tiny part of the fresco is made by Raphael. A great part, if not most part of the fresco is made by Raphael's school. For example; all the fruits and flower festoons were made by Giovanni da Udine.[31] When you have a look at the last fresco, you see the three graces; it is said that the female figure, seen from the back is made by Raphael himself, but the rest of the figure is made by his student Giulio Romano.[32]

Why the Greek myth Amor & Psyche


As told earlier in this wiki page, in the Renaissance period people got interested in the Classical period. They got interested in the culture and art from the Romans and Greeks. The myths about the Greek and Roman gods are part of that Roman and Greek culture are. The fable of Amor and Psyche is also a myth.

The room with frescoes of Amor and Psyche, the loggia, was painted and finished by Raphael in 1517.[33] At that time the Renaissance was at its peak, so it is not strange in that period of time that a Greek myth from the Classical time was painted in a loggia.

As already said in the earlier chapters, Agostino Chigi was a man who liked to show his wealth to everybody. Choosing Raphael to be the painter of the loggia of the Villa Farnesina, is a logical thing to do for a man like Chigi; Raphael was in Chigi's time a very famous en well-known painter and if you could tell visitors that Raphael painted your loggia, people would be very impressed.

So if it is not strange that a myth was painted in the loggia and that Raphael painted the myth, the next question we must ask, is who decided that the myth of Amor and Psyche had to be painted on the walls of the loggia. The books do not give us a clear answer to that question; some say it was the idea of Agostino Chigi and others say it was the idea of Raphael.

Paolo D'ancona says it was Raphael who had the idea to paint the myth of Amor and Psyche on the walls of the loggia and that Raphael used the story of Amor and Psyche from Apuleius Golden Ass.[34]

Writers like Roger Jones and Nicolas Penny say the opposite, that it was the idea of Agostino Chigi himself to have the myth of Amor and Psyche on the walls of the Villa Farnesina.[35]

Unfortunately, we cannot answer that question, but that does not mean we cannot find the reason why precisely that myth, and no other myth, had to be painted in the Villa Farnesina.

In the 16th century the story of Amor and Psyche was often used at marriages, because the myth is a story of two people falling in love. There are examples that the story of Amor and Psyche is painted on dowry chests.[36] The most well-known idea about the myth is that it is an allegory of the immortality of the soul.[37] However, the fresco of Raphael does not encourage that view.[38] So, pointing people to the fact that the human soul is immortal, cannot be the reason behind the fresco.

Another explanation for some people why the myth of Amor and Psyche was painted is that Agostino Chigi wanted to show the visitors who came to his villa that his marriage was approved by the highest counsel. There are several arguments that support that opinion and these will now be explained. It is said that Chigi compared himself and his life with that of Amor. Amor, just like Agostino Chigi, was a man of high-society and had friends and family in high places. Amor's lover was Psyche, a woman of low birth in comparison with Amor himself. Agostino was in deeply in love with Francesca Ordeaschi, a woman without money and no important family to speak of. Before Agostino married his mistress Francesca, he already had four children with her. Francesca, you could say, was Agostino's Psyche. A marriage between Agostino, a man from the upper-class, and Francesca, a woman from the lower-classes of society, in that period of time, the 16th century, would be just as undesirable as a marriage between a god, Amor, and a mortal woman, Psyche. As you can see on the ceiling of the loggia, lots of people opposed the love and marriage between Amor and Psyche. The sisters of Psyche did not approve of the marriage between those two. It is said that one of the graces in that fresco has the face of Chigi's former mistress Imperia[39], with whom he had a relationship until she died. After she died, he fell in love with Francesca. If Imperia had known about the relationship between her lover and Francesca, she probably would not have liked the two of them being together. The face of Imperia in the fresco is another clue that Chigi compares his love story with that of Psyche and Amor.

Eventually Jupiter, the highest god, approves of the marriage and says in the counsel of the gods that it is his wish that Amor and Psyche get married. In the story of Agostino it is the pope, Leo X, who wants that Agostino marries his mistress Francesca Ordeaschi. So, the marriage of Agostino and Francesca got, just like the marriage between Amor and Psyche, divine blessing.

In the middle of the ceiling we see a large fresco, which depicts the marriage between Amor and Psyche.

As one can see, the highest divine authority Jupiter also attends this wedding. This fresco shows us another final similarity between the Amor and Agostino. The Pope, the highest divine authority on earth, attended the wedding between Agostino and Francesca, just like Jupiter attended the wedding between the god and his girl. The marriage between Agostino and Francesca was held at the Villa Farnesina in the year 1519, after the fresco was finished. So every guest who came to the wedding and later on visited the villa could see that the marriage between Agostino and Francesca had a divine blessing.

Because of the many similarities between the myth of Amor and Psyche and the story of Agostino and Psyche, such as the face of Imperia in the fresco as one of the disapproving sisters, the pope, just like Jupiter, gave the couple his blessing at the wedding and the fact that the marriage was held at the Villa Farnesina, after the fresco was finished, we think it is more logical that the fresco was painted to show everybody that the marriage had a divine blessing, than that it was painted to show the immortality of the soul, or that Agostino just wanted Amor and Psyche in his loggia, because it was normal for newlyweds to have the love story of Amor and Psyche painted on one of their belongings.

Pagan gods


An interesting question is whether pope Leo X approved that pagan gods are depicted on the fresco of Amor and Psyche. Would he have mind being compared to Jupiter when he gave his blessing for the wedding of Chigi and Francesca? It would be logical to assume that he did. The head of the Catholic Church could not be compared to a pagan god, could he? But a search in literature, especially the work of Seznec, suggests otherwise.

A good starting point is the opinion of people about pagan gods. There are indications that suggest that people in the Middle Ages were not that suspicious of pagan gods and maybe even saw them as good magicians. A popular view (in literature) was that Greek and Roman culture had brought them civilization, an inheritance that in the 12th and 13th century was acknowledged[40]. In the Middle Ages mythological figures were also used as patrons and progenitors[41]. In the Renaissance these views and practices remained and even became stronger[42]. Pagan figures were visible in pictures, even in the Medieval times. Not uncommon were drawings placing the profane and sacred history together, showing roman gods and Christian figures[43]. This continued in the Renaissance period.

Of course the use of pagan gods caused a lot of protests and critical comments by the church and the clergymen in the middle ages and renaissance. This did not stop however the establishment of mythology in art and literature[44]. It is even said that the influence of churchmen who tried to lead artists away from profane subjects resulted in even more pagan works of art. For example a lot of important pagan decoration in the 16th century was made for cardinals[45]. Not only their counsel but also their commissions supported this art. Seznec says that this had been going on for centuries and can be explained by the inner conflict of the clergy. The churchmen, as theologians, should condemn the pagan art but as humanists loved it[46].

This could give an explanation why pope Leo X approved the fresco. As a Medici he probably received a first class humanistic education[47]. Furthermore he was a great lover of art and he generously spend a lot of money to support musicians, artists and literary men[48]. It seems plausible that this was the reason of his approval. We can however not be entirely sure due to lack of written accounts on this.

Which symbols - which people recognized that time - are used?


This audience of prominent people was used to luxury and splendorous banquettes which were often organized, also in the Villa Farnesina. The wedding of Amor and Psyche in one of the two larger frames is probably imaged as a banquette because of that.

The hierarchy that comes across in the story of Psyche and Amor is not new for the audience. In the fable the sovereign god is Jupiter, who is depicted by lighting and an eagle. He is more important than all other Gods who overrule in turn all mortal people. Jupiter is decisive in the story as his will to make Psyche immortal and marry Psyche and Amor is obeyed. At that time people were familiar with a strong hierarchy. In Rome the Pope was the sovereign authority, after which came the clergy and nobility, followed by the regular workers. Just as Jupiter was decisive in the fable, the Pope was decisive in everyday life in Rome.

Raphael clearly wanted to involve his audience in the paintings by pointing the eyes of some of the figures point at us. For example, Mercury looks at the audience and even seems to approach the audience. Also in both larger frescos there is one person of the group who looks at us. This makes these images more exciting and even involves the audience today with these frescoes. Also, figures in the fresco that look away or look down often view in the direction of other (former) frescoes that are somewhat related to them.

Between all the paintings, beautiful festoons with flowers, vegetables and fruits are frescoed. Of course, these were painted to make the room more luxurious, but these were symbolic for the voluptuousness and fertility of nature[49]. This is quite vividly shown by the erotic image of a gourd and a fig.


Problems and solutions


Our research has been centered around one main question which is answered in this section; To what problem is the Loggia of Amor and Psyche the solution?

The most important problem Chigi encountered was that he wanted to preserve his position in the Roman society. We found out that Chigi had an affair with a girl of simple origin in contrast to Chigi who was a wealthy banker and was even integrated in the papal family by Pope Julius II della Rovere. This on top of their four extramarital children caused a lot of gossip and laughter among the Roman high society. So, Chigi faced a problem of regaining his reputation. Villa Farnesina was visited by many prominent persons from the Roman high society and the loggia was the first room they entered. Therefore, the frescoes in the entrance hall were an opportunity to show visitors that Chigi had the blessing from 'a higher power' for his marriage with Francesca. We discovered that the fable of Amor and Psyche had many similarities with that of Chigi and Francesca. Chigi clearly wanted to show Roman society that Francesca was his Psyche and that they had a 'divine' blessing for their love. Furthermore, by making Raphael - one of the most celebrated and renowned artists at that time - decorate this room Chigi could show to all his wealth and power. The actual gossip around Chigi was raised to a higher level by Raphael in this art work. The abundance of symbols and several interpretations of the fable make it possible to sublimate the story of Chigi and Francesca. All this would hush the voices of laughter and gossip and would restore Agostino Chigi's reputation of honorable and powerful businessman who was supported by the highest powers of all.

Bibliography


Books

Cresti, C & Rendina, C. Villa's en palazzi in Rome. Groningen: Könemann, 1999.

D'The Farnesina frescoes at Rome. Milan: Edizioni del millione, 1955.

Fisser, C & Jansen, T. FORUM Basisboek Klassieke Culturele Vorming. Lunteren: Hermaion,2003.

Hintzen- Bohlen, B. Kunst & Architectuur Rome. Amsterdam: Tandem Verlag, 2005.

Jones, R & Penny N. Raphael. New Heaven and London: Yale University Press, 1983.

Oberhuber, K. Raphael The Paintings. Munich: Prestel, 1999.

Malafarina, G. The Villa Farnesina in Rome. Modena: Franco Cosumo Panini, 2010.

Mitchell, B. Rome in the High Renaissance The Age of Leo X. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973.

Renkema, J. Schrijfwijzer. Handboek voor duidelijk taalgebruik. 3e druk. 's-Gravenhage: Sdu, 1995.

Seznec, J. The Survival of The Pagan Gods. Princenton: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Taylor, T. Fable of Cupid and Psyche, Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2003.

Magazine articles

Janick, J. and H.S. Paris. " The Cucurbit Images (1515 - 1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome". Annals of Botany. 97 (2006): 165 - 176.

Online sources

Jalic Inc.: http://www.online-mythology.com/cupid_psyche/. 26th September 2012.

Jolie Jacobs: http://www.rome-nu.nl/liefdesverhalen/14314-agostino-en-imperia-verborgen-liefde-in-rome.html.

References


  1. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 15.
  2. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 15.
  3. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 17.
  4. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 17-32.
  5. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 45,47
  6. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 45, 47, 50-65.
  7. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 125.
  8. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 136.
  9. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 136-141.
  10. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 5.

  11. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 136.
    Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 5.
  12. Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 102.
  13. Konrad Oberhuber, (Raphael The Paintings, Munich: Prestel, 1999), 136.
  14. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6.
    Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 102.
  15. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 5-6.
  16. Brigitte Hintzen-Bohlen, Kunst & Architectuur Rome (Amsterdam: Tandem Verlag, 2005), 437.
  17. Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 106.
  18. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6
  19. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6.
  20. Brigitte Hintzen-Bohlen, Kunst & Architectuur Rome (Amsterdam: Tandem Verlag, 2005), 440.

  21. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 5-12.
  22. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 8.
    Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 185-187.
  23. Konrad Oberhuber, Raphael The Paintings, (Munich: Prestel, 1999), 187.
  24. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6.
  25. Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 106.
  26. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6.
    Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 106-107.
  27. Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 12.
  28. Carlo Cresti and Claudio Rendina, Villa's en palazzi in Rome, (Groningen: Könemann, 1999), 107-108.
    Gianfranco Malafarina, The Villa Farnesina in Rome, (Modena: Franco Cosimo Panini, 2010), 6-7.
  29. Thomas Taylor, ed. Fable of Cupid and Psyche, (Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2003).
  30. Jalic Inc.: http://www.online-mythology.com/cupid_psyche/. 26th September 2012.

  31. Paolo D'ancona, ed. The Farnesina frescoes at Rome, (Milan: Edizioni del millione, 1955), 57.
  32. Paolo D'ancona, ed. The Farnesina frescoes at Rome, (Milan: Edizioni del millione, 1955), 90.
  33. Paolo D'ancona, ed. The Farnesina frescoes at Rome, (Milan: Edizioni del millione, 1955), 55.
  34. Paolo D'ancona, ed. The Farnesina frescoes at Rome, (Milan: Edizioni del millione, 1955), 57.
  35. Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, ed. Raphael, (New Heaven and London: Yale University Press, 1983), 183.
  36. Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, ed. Raphael, (New Heaven and London: Yale University Press, 1983), 184.
  37. Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, ed. Raphael, (New Heaven and London: Yale University Press, 1983), 184.
  38. Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, ed. Raphael, (New Heaven and London: Yale University Press, 1983), 184.
  39. Jolie Jacobs: http://www.rome-nu.nl/liefdesverhalen/14314-agostino-en-imperia-verborgen-liefde-in-rome.html.
  40. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 17-19.

  41. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 20.
  42. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 20-22.
  43. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 28-29.
  44. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 263-264.
  45. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 264-265.
  46. Jean Seznec, The Survival of The Pagan Gods (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972), 265-266.
  47. It is not absolute certain that he actually did receive such an education but there are indications that he did. Bonner Mitchell, Rome in the High Renaissance The Age of Leo X (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1973), 14.
  48. Bonner Mitchell, Rome in the High Renaissance The Age of Leo X (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1973), 17.
  49. Janick, J. and H.S. Paris. "The Cucurbit Images (1515 - 1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome". Annals of Botany. 97 (2006): 165 - 176.